Public debate on the future of work and of education and training has been raging across Europe. Globalisation, digitisation, migration, demographics and the greening economy are the challenges fuelling discussions. Unemployment, underemployment, mismatches between people’s skills and available jobs, and flat or falling incomes have been undermining the cohesion and the social model of European societies.

It is against this backdrop that EU Member States have been working ever more closely together in vocational education and training (VET). In June 2016, the European Commission published a New skills agenda for Europe, which spelled out a list of immediate actions, with a view to enabling Europe to improve the quality and relevance of skills formation, to make skills and qualifications more visible and comparable, and to advance skills intelligence, documentation and informed career choices.

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